It is the mathematical representation of an object or system, aiming to understand it and seek its answers to different simulations. The hydrological modeling is widely used to anticipate events such as the impact of the urbanization in a river basin before it occurs, the prediction of a real-time flood, the impact of the alteration of a river, the occurrence of statistically significant extreme events, making it possible to carry out preventive measures for these various situations.
The models integration allows to evaluate complex constraints in different water resources scenarios. For example, in the flow forecasting, it is possible to integrate meteorological and hydrological model to predict the flow of a certain place in advance, based on the rain forecast, the rain recorded in the basin and the flows that allow to update the model. Another example is the integration of a hydrological model of a river basin, a hydrodynamic model of a reservoir and its water quality, which allows to integrate and analyze the basin behavior and its loads with the reservoir behavior.
Types of models
Simulation models: they represent and describe processes and allow to anticipate events and make more conscious decisions. In water resources, there are models for design, planning, variables forecasting and evaluation of land use. The main models in water resources serve to represent the hydrological cycle in the watershed, water quality, sediments production and transportation, among other processes;
Optimization models: these models optimize systems or system functions operation and can use the simulation models within their structure. The optimization models seek definitions such as reservoirs operation, flow networks sizing, multiple uses of water, etc.
Decision models: are called decision support models. They combine several models to answer the decision questions of users and decision makers. There are decision support systems for water management in watersheds, in urban drainage.