It deals with the various components of the planning and management of water resources in the area of the river basin and its interface with the political, economic and social management of the territory. It involves institutional aspects such as legislation and systems management, water use and socio-environmental sustainability diagnosis and planning, natural or extreme events risk management (events that can produce natural and anthropic disasters of floods and droughts), strategies and targets development, environments preservation and conservation. The water resources management performed by the water resources legislation is to regulate the uses and prevent impacts, it is not development. Development is carried out by the sectors of society.
The three fundamental components of water resources management, according to Brazilian legislation, are:
The water permit, which establishes the criteria, control and inspection of water use, maintaining the conditions of environment conservation and preservation;
The framework, which is a goal plan to reduce the impact on rivers water quality. The framework defines the desired river class as a goal by river segment by management agents. The framing is not a bureaucratic definition of a stretch of river.
Vulnerability reduction , to extreme events, which deals with the water security of the systems. In a determined region, the studies developed usually establish their projects with a certain risk. Vulnerability reduction is the planning of these projects and water security. The water security is the prevention and mitigation measures planning for events that are within the risks of the projects.
The Water Resources Plans are tools to execute the objectives and goals of water resources. The national and state management plans establish management strategies for the country and guide the basin plans. Research plans develop the diagnosis, strategies and objectives for the management components, which are water permit, framing and extreme events. A water resource plan is not a development plan, but a regulation plan.
It involves the risks source, which are pressure on projects and areas; on society, which, in turn, has an impact on the environment; impacts due to climate change; social, economic and physical vulnerabilities. Risk management has two components:
Control project: development of projects to reduce economic and social vulnerability on extreme events, such as the construction of a flood protection dam, a water project to serve the population;
Water security: it is the part that develops prevention and mitigation actions for events that reach lower risk than the projects. It's the planning of what to do when occur the events that projects are not prepared to them.
In recent years, the increase of disasters and affected people is mainly related to population growth in risk areas (flood areas); increased urban growth and pressure on the environment; variability and climate change, which alters the coexistence conditions of the population with natural resources. These combined factors may explain the observed trend.
The risks related to water are mainly due to the effect on the population and the natural environment or due to anthropogenic processes. The risk sources are the pressure that society exerts on the environment, impacts due to the variation of the climate on the society, the social, economic and physical vulnerabilities.