The water supply is the water service system for the population. This system has the following components: water source from which water is withdrawn for supply; adduction is the transport of water to a water treatment plant (WTP) and then the distribution system, which has reserve and distribution to population over a network.
The sewage sanitation is the collection system of wastewater (residential, commercial and industrial), the transportation of this volume, its treatment in a WWTP (Wastewater Treatment Plant) and therelease of treated water back to the water body.
Storm water. Storm water management is a major aspect of water management in cities. There are two main types of conditions related: urban drainage (small basins) that is set by urban projects and changes the city, most often producing flooding due to piping and surfaces impermeabilization; and riverine floods (medium and large basins) when the population occupy areas in the river’s valley where the river floods resulting impacts on the population.
● Urban drainage: urban drainage consists of gutters, drains, pipes and other collect and water transport devices. There are small channels that drain small areas, called microdrainage, which include storm drains and gutters. And there are canals and natural rivers, which collects all microdrainage, called macrodrainage. Urbanization tends to produce increased flood flows erosion, sediment and worsening of water quality. The Urban Drainage Master Plan is the instrument used to plan the impacts control within the city and guide the short and long-term actions for sustainable development. The company has actuated in the development of this plans, and has been working in simulating the impacts over the drainage network, regarding both quantitative and qualitative water aspects.
● Riverine flooding: river flooding occurs when the river comes out of its channel and occupies the floodplain. Usually this occurs with an average frequency of 2 years. The impacts are significant when there is high density of urban occupation in this area. The management of this area can be accomplished through structural actions, which are works that alter the river to protect the public, or non-structural actions, in which the population lives together with floodings, and its impacts are reduced through actions such as zoning areas of flooding, including Urban Plans and Drainage Plans, warning of floods, among others.
Resíduos sólidos: a gestão dos sólidos produzidos pela população tem três componentes: coleta domiciliar, limpeza das ruas e a parcela que vai para a drenagem. Os dois primeiros atuam para reduzir o último componente. Junto com os resíduos sólidos humanos estão os sedimentos produzidos pelo efeito da chuva sobre as superfícies desprotegidas. Quando a cidade está em desenvolvimento, ocorre aumento significativo dos sedimentos das obras. Depois que a cidade está construída, a proporção dos resíduos da população tem parcela importante. Os resíduos totais obstruem a drenagem e contaminam os sistemas hídricos, já que grande parte da carga vem agregada aos sedimentos.
Solid Waste: Waste management has three components: home collection, street cleaning and the fraction that goes to the drainage system. The first two components act to reduce the third one. Along with human waste there are the sediments produced by the effect of rain on unprotected surfaces. When the city is developing there is a significant increase in sediment, generatedin the construction works. After city is built the proportion of waste produced by population plays a significant role. The total waste blocks drain elements and contaminate water systems, as much of the pollutant load is added to the sediments.
Environment the main urban environmental problems relate to: the erosion and areas dumpdegradation; contamination of aquifers by different emission for subsoil; untreated sewage released in rivers and conduits; solid waste non-collected or dropped at uncontrolled landfills; water contaminated by urban surfaces due to cleaning of the streets. Cities tend to collect water upstream and dump it contaminated downstream. As there are cities upstream and another downstream there is actually a cycle of contamination between cities. The sanitation legislation establishes the Basic Sanitation Plan, which treats the plans within the cities of the four sanitation services. The sanitation plan must be an integrated instrument of actions for the city, with a specific context of services and the integration of services in the city.